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World Health Organization WHO  (2023)    C_WHO

Human schistosomiasis is caused mainly by 3 schistosome species: Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum. S. guineensis, S. intercalatum and S. mekongi have a highly localized distribution in Central Africa and along the Mekong River in South-East Asia, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) are infections caused by 4 parasite species: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The 2 latter species are indistinguishable microscopically and are usually reported together as “hookworms”. Schistosomiasis and STH are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and are transmitted mainly in areas with poor access to clean water and sanitation. The presence of an intermediate snail host in water is essential to allow Schistosoma to complete their life cycle. Schistosomiasis and STH can cause significant morbidity, including anaemia, nutritional disturbances and, in the case of schistosomiasis, granuloma, organ pathology and cancer, and an increased risk of acquisition of HIV. In women, urogenital schistosomiasis may cause vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse and nodules in the vulva, now described as female genital schistosomiasis. Groups at risk for STH and schistosomiasis are those in need of micronutrients: preschool-aged children (pre-SAC, 1–4 years of age), school-aged children (SAC, 5–14 years), women of reproductive age (WRA) and, in addition for schistosomiasis adult and entire communities in high-risk areas

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Lemosa, M.; Fançonya, C.; Moura, S. et al The royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene  (2020)    C2

Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections are major public health problems. We aimed to study the 6-mo impact of mass drug administration with praziquantel and albendazole on urinary schistosomiasis and STH.We examined children (aged 2–15 y) from one hamlet, who provided urine and faeces samples at baseline (n=197), 1 mo (n=102) and 6 mo (n=92); 67 completed the protocol.At baseline, 47/67 (70.1%) children presented Schistosoma haematobium (75.8% in the baseline total sample) and 12/67 (17.9%) with STH (30.5% in the initial sample, p=0.010). Among the children, 47.3% had heavy Schistosoma haematobium infection. The most frequent STH was Trichuris trichiura in 9.0%. We also found Hymenolepis nana (13.2%) and Plasmodium falciparum (9.1%) infections and anaemia (82.1%). One mo after chemotherapy there was a significant (p=0.013) reduction of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence (23.5%) and a high egg reduction rate (86.9%). Considering the sample of 67 children, the mean egg concentration was 498 at baseline, 65 at 1 mo and 252 at 6 mo (p<0.05). We also observed a reduction in STH infections, 50% in Ascaris lumbricoides, 33.3% in T. trichiura and 50% in hookworms. At 6 mo, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (76.1%) was similar to the baseline and the STH reduction was not significant.Longitudinal studies have reported many losses in these settings, but we were able to show that mass drug administration for control of schistosomiasis and STH present low effectiveness, that reinfections occur rapidly and that stand alone anthelmintic therapy is not a sustainable choice

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World Health Organization WHO  (2021)    CC

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World Health Organization WHO  (2014)    C_WHO

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Hoekstra P.T., Casacuberta-Partal M., van Lieshout L. et al  (2020)    C2

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GSA - Global Schistosomiasis Alliance  (2023)    C2

Website last accessed on 31.03.2023

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World Health Organization WHO  (2022)    C_WHO

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JJ Medicine  (2019)    CC

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Roy, S.  (2022)    CC

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC  (2022)    CC

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57 records

57 records