WHO manual for HIV drug resistance testing using dried blood spot specimens

HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping is an essential component of the WHO global HIVDR surveillance strategy. Plasma “gold standard” specimen type for HIVDR genotyping, but its use may not be feasible in rural, remote areas in low- and middle-income countries, since preparing and storing it require personnel and laboratory infrastructure that are often lacking. An alternative specimen type is dried blood spots (DBS), which can be made without special laboratory processing. DBS are more easily transported than plasma because they can be shipped at ambient temperature as non-hazardous materials using regular mail or courier services. 3rd edition