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The conditionality of this recommendation is largely driven by the current higher unit cost of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs compared to pyrethroid-only LLINs and therefore the uncertainty of their cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, as PBO is less wash-resistant than pyrethroids, its bioavailability declines faster over the three-year estimated life of an ITN; therefore, the added impact of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs over that of pyrethroid-only LLINs may decline over time. The evidence comes from two sites in eastern Africa with pyrethroid resistance and not from other geographies where transmission levels and vector characteristics may vary. PBO acts by inhibiting certain metabolic enzymes, primarily oxidases, and so are likely to provide greater protection than pyrethroid-only LLINs where mosquitoes display mono-oxygenase-based insecticide resistance mechanisms.

Malaria,  Guidelines,  resistance control,  WHO,