Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Chronic Manifestations in Chagas Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review

Pathogens . 2021 Nov 16;10(11):1493.doi: 10.3390/pathogens10111493 .Chronic manifestations of Chagas disease present as disabling and life-threatening condi-tions affecting mainly the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Although meaningful research has outlined the different molecular mechanisms underlying Trypanosoma cruzi’s infection and the host-parasite interactions that follow, prompt diagnosis and treatment remain a challenge, particu-larly in developing countries and also in those where the disease is considered non-endemic. This review intends to present an up-to-date review of the parasite’s life cycle, genetic diversity, virulence factors, and infective mechanisms, as well as the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options of the main chronic complications of Chagas disease.