Leishmaniasis Worldwide and Global Estimates of Its Incidence

Although estimated to cause the ninth largest disease burden among individual infectious diseases, leishmaniasis is largely ignored in discussions of tropical disease priorities [1,2]. This consignment to critical oblivion results from its complex epidemiology and ecology, the lack of simple, easily-applied tools for case management and the paucity of current incidence data, and often results in a failure on the part of policy-makers to recognize its importance [3,4]. Based on the World Health Assembly Resolu tion 2007/60.13, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened the Expert Committee on Leishmaniasis in March 2010, which subsequently issued the first updated technical report on leishmaniasis in more than 20 years [5,6].